The birth of the angel of astronomy
The only cosmic event. Numerous studies have been written about him, even in just two months. Thousands of astronomers from around the world contributed to these studies. Such a phenomenon has probably never happened before in the history of astronomy. What is that event What is his majesty? The phenomenon is the collision of two neutron stars in space and their union. And greatness, this is the first time scientists have discovered a cosmic phenomenon with the help of electromagnetic waves and gravitational waves at the same time. At the same time a new branch of astronomy was born: multi-messenger astronomy or angel astronomy. And this day of birth, that mean 17th August 2017 was written in red letters in the history of science.
Let’s start from the beginning. Do you think spending time watching the sky with binoculars and pulling the bush of the forest to eat the house, is equal to two? So suppose you are in a room that you have no idea about. The only door in the house is locked and you don’t have the key. There is a window in the room. It is closed but open. The question is, will you open the window? I know you will open. And if you have to open a lot of trouble? Even then you will open.
If you ask why, you may be wondering: what is the reason for this? That’s normal! Don’t see what’s out there? Diameter, you have accepted the rationale of observing the sky with binoculars.
We are, in fact, on the surface, in a room, dead. Door lock, no way out. But there is a window. Visible light. That means we can see in the light that is empty. So for ages our predecessors have looked up to the sky, tried to know the sky, calculated the time with the stars, and directed it. Astronomy is probably the oldest science. There were no binoculars at one time. What’s in it? With the help of the naked eye and other instruments, people know the position of the stars, the position of the planets, where they will be at the same time tomorrow. One such device is sextant, which measures the angular distance between two objects.
Window of visible light
However, when Galileo Galilei began to look at celestial bodies through a telescope in the early seventeenth century, and began to record the information he saw, the first window in the universe opened. This was the window of visible light. And with this the beginning of modern astronomy.
What did Galileo see? He saw the mountains of the moon, the ring of Saturn, the moon revolving around the planet Jupiter, and many other wonderful things. Is it also possible that all the celestial objects in the sky may have flaws (mountains and cavities)? Why would any new object turn around Jupiter leaving Earth? But that’s what we saw through the window.
The search has begun. There has never been a shortage of people to chase away buffaloes by eating at home. One of them was Tycho Brahe. He had, of course, collected a lot of information about the movements of the eclipse before, without binoculars. And essentially using that information, one of his colleagues, Johan Kepler, discovered the rules of planetary motion. But why the planets obey these rules is still unclear. Later, scientist Isaac Newton mathematically verified Kepler’s observations. He shows how there are many general rules for the movement of objects in nature and their mutual gravitational attraction, which apply equally to earthly objects and cosmic objects.
This is an outstanding discovery in the history of mankind. As a result of this, cosmic objects no longer reached our intellect, superstition and mindless ideas went far beyond, a vast world outside of the world came into our realm of knowledge and opened the door to infinite possibilities.
The windows began to grow larger. That is, the bigger, the bigger, the binoculars began to form. The larger the telescope, the more light it can collect from a single object, and the better it can be seen and understood. Finally, in 1918, a two-and-a-half meter diameter telescope was installed on Mount Wilson outside Pasadena, California, USA. For the next thirty-two years it was the largest telescope in the world. And with this telescope, the scientist Edwin Hubble discovered this universe! At this time scientists had the idea that our Milky Way galaxy or Milky Way is the universe. Hubble discovered many galaxies far beyond the Milky Way. And the mind and the spirit of humanity have once again extended their legs from the limit to the infinite.
Possibility of more windows
The universe we know up to now, was only discovered through the first window. But this one window, no matter how big it may be, is not enough to fully understand or comprehend this universe. But what about the other windows?
Numerous experiments by scientist Michael Faraday in the nineteenth century established a number of formulas for electromagnetic science. Scientist James Clark Maxwell shows mathematically from these sources that visible light is actually a type of electromagnetic wave. In fact, if the value of the wavelength of this wave is within a certain range, then we can see it with the naked eye. But what if this wavelength is outside that range, that is, less or more than the wavelength of visible light? If the wavelength continues to decrease, we will get stronger, more powerful rays, such as ultra-violet or ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma-rays. And if the wavelength continues to be longer, we get infrared or infrared and radio waves.
These rays are discovered one by one. Infrared waves were invented by William Herschel, X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen. Scientists find that the magnitude of the electromagnetic wave is huge. Radio wavelengths can be as large as the size of a large house. In the gamma ray it can be like the nucleus of an atom, which is one tenth of a millionth of a meter! And a small part of this unimaginable range is occupied by visible light, the wavelength of which is the size of a germ. Is it possible that the universe can be known and understood only by visible light, and that the rest of the electromagnetic waves have no role to play?
No, the scientists could not accept that, and the windows began to open. Naturally the first window opened at the radio wavelength. Why? Because radio can be communicated remotely. So this wave-related work is not limited only in the laboratory, and it has a usefulness beyond the ability of the forest to feed the forest.
Some of the scientists who studied radio waves since the nineteenth century also discovered radio waves from the sun. But no one succeeded. Meanwhile, in the early 1930’s, engineer Karl Janski was researching radio communication from one side of the Atlantic to another on behalf of a company. He didn’t even think about finding radio waves from space. But that’s what he got. He started getting a strange signal which was rising after exactly 23 hours and 56 minutes. At first he thought, this is a radio wave coming from the sun. His antenna can catch radio waves in a certain direction. Once a day, when the sun comes in that particular direction, his antenna might be catching the sun’s radio waves, he thought at first. But then why is the radio signal increasing after 23 hours and 56 minutes? Why not every 24 hours? The Earth revolves around its own axis once every 23 hours and 56 minutes, not once every 24 hours  in relation to distant stars. Therefore, a radio signal coming from far away should be able to catch his antenna specially once in 23 hours and 56 minutes. That is, his signal must be coming from a distant world. Finally the signal was coming from the most dense part of our galaxy galaxy. We now know that there is a giant black hole sitting there. And with the discovery of Jansky, the radio window of the universe opened.
However, in the meantime the Second World War broke out. War brings destruction. The attempt to get to know the universe stops. No one has the money, time or opportunity to drive away the mustard from the forest. However, the need for war has greatly improved radio technology. As a result, radio astronomy began to flourish soon after the war. Through the radio window we saw the universe with new eyes, understood it in a new way and discovered all kinds of new objects. For example, the neutron-star, which we mentioned earlier in this article, which helped give birth to angelic astronomy, was also discovered with the help of these radio waves. These neutron-stars are amazing objects, their mass is greater than the mass of the sun, but in size they are like a city. And so their density is so high that the mass of a cup object of a neutron star can even adjust to the summit of Everest.
In fact, even though we discovered quite a bit of the universe’s spread, the elements and the mystery with visible light, it was like the Bengali proverb ‘The Handwriting of the Blind’. After World War II, new windows were opened and in an effort to continually expand those windows, we learned so many new things about the universe that even before this war, our knowledge of thousands of years can only be called base. If any time can be termed as the golden age of astronomy, then that time is now. I will only talk about opening another window here with electromagnetic waves.
When Ricardo Giaconi and his colleagues discovered an X-ray from an object outside the Solar System in 1962, the X-ray window of the universe opened. This object is a joint-star, one of which is a neutron-star. Notice that, like most astronomers, X-ray astronomy is born with the hand of a neutron star. In this case, the gas from the companion star is falling on the neutron star with great speed. As a result, the temperature of that gas is becoming more than a million degrees Celsius, and so X-rays are radiating that gas. To discover this cosmic X-ray, however, Giaconi had to send his instrument over the atmosphere, using a rocket. Because cosmic X-rays cannot penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere, we would not exist.
What other messengers?
Electromagnetic waves are not the only messenger that brings the news of the distant universe to us. A very powerful variety of particles called ‘cosmic rays’ also help us to know about the universe. There are also very light but very fast neutrino particles that pierce almost everything and are therefore difficult to find. These particles are also but one window of the universe. However, the full use of these windows has not yet begun .
The window of gravitational waves
In the early twentieth century, Albert Einstein announced his new theory of gravitation. He said that the gravitational pull of an object causes space-time to bend and twist. What is more surprising is that aerial observational data also supported this strange theory. The question now is whether the special motion of a very dense and heavy cosmic object can produce waves in this space that can reach us from the farthest reaches of the universe.
The answer is, yes, can. This gravitational wave was discovered in 2015 as a result of decades of in-depth theoretical and technological research. Studies have shown that these waves are caused by the fusion of two distant black holes. And at the same time a new window of the universe opened. But naturally no light was seen from this combination because no electromagnetic waves were to be radiated normally between the two black holes. One of the shortcomings of seeing this way is that you do not know exactly how dependent the news of a new-found angel is. Maybe this angel is saying one and you understand another. It was as if you suddenly felt the heat on your face while you were closing your eyes and thought the sun had come down on your face. But that may not be the case, heater may be on the side. You know when you open your eyes. That is, a cosmic phenomenon needs to be seen simultaneously by gravitational and electromagnetic waves to be precisely certain that the gravitational wave window is reporting exactly!
This eye was opened on August 17, 2017 when we witnessed the union of two neutron stars in the distant universe not only through the window of gravitational waves, but also through different windows of electromagnetic waves. At the same time, two different types of messengers informed about this extraordinary cosmic event and a messenger window opened. Why the outstanding event? Because of this fact, we have learned a lot, from the numerous papers written in just two months. We learned that heavy material in the universe originated from the collision between such neutron stars. And so the gold ring on your hand and the gold necklace on your neck are the result of the collision of two neutron stars in the past.